Category Archives: Weight Loss

High Protein Diet Could Help Prevent Weight Regain

Filet mignon and sautéed asparagus

Weight loss can change your metabolism in such a way that promotes regain of lost weight. For successful weight-losers with prediabetes, a higher protein diet could help with prevention of regain. How much higher protein? 25% versus the usual 15% of calories from fat.

This is important research since most people who lose fat weight gain it back, typically 6–12 months later.

For the boring details, keep reading.

ABSTRACT

Background

Weight loss has been associated with adaptations in energy expenditure. Identifying factors that counteract these adaptations are important for long-term weight loss and weight maintenance.

Objective

The aim of this study was to investigate whether increased protein/carbohydrate ratio would reduce adaptive thermogenesis (AT) and the expected positive energy balance (EB) during weight maintenance after weight loss in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state.

Methods

In 38 participants, the effects of 2 diets differing in protein/carbohydrate ratio on energy expenditure and respiratory quotient (RQ) were assessed during 48-h respiration chamber measurements ∼34 mo after weight loss. Participants consumed a high-protein (HP) diet (n = 20; 13 women/7 men; age: 64.0 ± 6.2 y; BMI: 28.9 ± 4.0 kg/m 2) with 25:45:30% or a moderate-protein (MP) diet (n = 18; 9 women/9 men; age: 65.1 ± 5.8 y; BMI: 29.0 ± 3.8 kg/m 2) with 15:55:30% of energy from protein:carbohydrate:fat. Predicted resting energy expenditure (REEp) was calculated based on fat-free mass and fat mass. AT was assessed by subtracting measured resting energy expenditure (REE) from REEp. The main outcomes included differences in components of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and AT between groups.

Results

EB (MP = 0.2 ± 0.9 MJ/d; HP = −0.5 ± 0.9 MJ/d) and RQ (MP = 0.84 ± 0.02; HP = 0.82 ± 0.02) were reduced and REE (MP: 7.3 ± 0.2 MJ/d compared with HP: 7.8 ± 0.2 MJ/d) was increased in the HP group compared with the MP group (P < 0.05). REE was not different from REEp in the HP group, whereas REE was lower than REEp in the MP group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, EB was positively related to AT (rs = 0.74; P < 0.001) and RQ (rs = 0.47; P < 0.01) in the whole group of participants.

Conclusions

In conclusion, an HP diet compared with an MP diet led to a negative EB and counteracted AT ∼34 mo after weight loss, in participants with prediabetes in the postobese state. These results indicate the relevance of compliance to an increased protein/carbohydrate ratio for long-term weight maintenance after weight loss. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01777893.

Source: High Compared with Moderate Protein Intake Reduces Adaptive Thermogenesis and Induces a Negative Energy Balance during Long-term Weight-Loss Maintenance in Participants with Prediabetes in the Postobese State: A PREVIEW Study | The Journal of Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Steve Parker, M.D.

PS: I didn’t read the whole study. I leave that to you.

Steve Parker MD, Advanced Mediterranean Diet

Click the pic to purchase at Amazon.com. E-book versions also available at Smashwords. com.

Scientific evidence of various diets for weight loss

One of our favorite go-to salads

From Science Direct:

New dietary strategies have been created to treat overweight and obesity and have become popular and widely adopted. Nonetheless, they are mainly based on personal impressions and reports published in books and magazines, rather than on scientific evidence. Animal models and human clinical trials have been employed to study changes in body composition and metabolic outcomes to determine the most effective diet. However, the studies present many limitations and should be carefully analyzed. The aim of this review was to discuss the scientific evidence of three categories of diets for weight loss. There is no one most effective diet to promote weight loss. In the short term, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets and intermittent fasting are suggested to promote greater weight loss and could be adopted as a jumpstart. However, owing to adverse effects, caution is required. In the long term, current evidence indicates that different diets promoted similar weight loss and adherence to diets will predict their success. Finally, it is fundamental to adopt a diet that creates a negative energy balance and focuses on good food quality to promote health.

Source: Scientific evidence of diets for weight loss: Different macronutrient composition, intermittent fasting, and popular diets – ScienceDirect

Steve Parker, M.D.

PS: I’ve got a diet book that’s two in one: ketogenic vs reduced-calorie.

Steve Parker MD, Advanced Mediterranean Diet

Click the pic to purchase at Amazon.com. E-book versions also available at Smashwords. com.

One Way to Preserve Fat Free Mass During A Low-Calorie Diet 

Greek salad with canned salmon

The parts of your body that aren’t fat tissue are collectively called fat-free mass or lean mass. Fat-free mass includes muscle, organs, bones, water, connective tissue, etc. Reduced-calorie diets are often linked to reduction of body components—like muscle—other than the desired loss of excess fat.

One proven effective way to preserve muscle mass on a reduced-calorie diet is to consume adequate protein. Judicious exercise may also help.

I haven’t read the full article below, and probably won’t. For what it’s worth, they say fat-free mass can be preserved during a very low-carb ketogenic diet via adequate intake of vitamin D, leucine, and whey protein. D you think maybe they’re selling a particular supplement?

The abstract isn’t very well written. Or is it the title that’s misleading.

Abstract

The loss of fat free mass (FFM) that occurs during a weight loss secondary to low-calorie diet can lead to numerous and deleterious consequences. We performed a review in order to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding the optimum treatment for maintaining FFM during low-calorie diet. This review included eligible studies. In order to maintain FFM during a low-calorie diet, there are various diet strategies: adopt a very-low carbohydrates ketogenic diets (VLCKD) and take an adequate amount of specific nutrients (vitamin D, leucine, whey protein). As regard the numerous and various low-calorie diet proposals for achieving weight loss, the comparison of VLCKD with prudent low-calorie diet demonstrated that FFM was practically unaffected by VLCKD. This is possible for numerous mechanisms, involving insulin and insulin like grow factor-I – growth hormone (IGF-I-GH) axis, and which acts by stimulating protein synthesis. Considering protein and amino acids intake, an adequate daily intake of leucine (4 grams/day), and whey protein (20 grams/day) is recommended.

Regarding vitamin D, if the blood vitamin D has low values (<30 ng/ml), it is mandatory that an adequate supplementation is provided, specifically calcifediol because in the obese subject, this form is recommended to avoid seizure in the adipose tissue: 3–4 drops/day or 20–30 drops/week of calcifediol are generally adequate to restore normal 25(OH)D plasma levels in obese subjects.

Source: Current Opinion On Dietary Advice In Order To Preserve Fat Free Mass During A Low-Calorie Diet – ScienceDirect

I had never heard of that obesity-califidiol connection.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Steve Parker MD, Advanced Mediterranean Diet

Click the pic to purchase at Amazon.com. E-book versions also available at Smashwords. com.

A practical guide to the Mediterranean diet – From Harvard

There are myriad reasons the traditional Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets. From Harvard Medical Publishing, an article written by a Registered Dietitian:

The Mediterranean diet has received much attention as a healthy way to eat, and with good reason. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce risk of heart disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, certain cancers, depression, and in older adults, a decreased risk of frailty, along with better mental and physical function. In January [2019], US News and World Report named it the “best diet overall” for the second year running.

Source: A practical guide to the Mediterranean diet – Harvard Health Blog – Harvard Health Publishing

Ready to get started? Click the link above.

Ready to lose weight and start a fitness program, too? Click the pic below.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Steve Parker MD, Advanced Mediterranean Diet

Click the pic to purchase at Amazon.com. E-book versions also available at Smashwords. com.

 

Dietary Fiber Promotes Weight Loss on Calorie-Restricted Diets

Almost no fiber in these cookies

ABSTRACT

Background

The effects of dietary composition on weight loss are incompletely understood. In addition to energy intake, fiber intake, energy density, macronutrient composition, and demographic characteristics have all been suggested to contribute to weight loss.

Objective

The primary aim of this analysis was to assess the role of dietary fiber as a predictor of weight loss in participants who consumed calorie-restricted diets (−750 kcal/d from estimated energy needs) for 6 mo, using data from the POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) Study—a randomized trial that examined the effects of calorie-restricted diets varying in macronutrient composition on weight loss in adults.

Methods

Data were randomly partitioned to a training data set (70%) in which the effects of fiber and other weight-loss predictors were identified using adjusted Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator and model averaging. The retained predictors were then fit on the testing data set to assess predictive performance.

Results

Three hundred and forty-five participants (53.9% female) provided dietary records at baseline and 6 mo. Mean ± SD age and BMI for the full sample was 52.5 ± 8.7 y and 32.6 ± 3.9 kg/m2, respectively. Mean ± SD (99% CI) weight change at 6 mo for the full sample was −7.27 ± 5.6 kg (−8.05, −6.48 kg). The final, best fit model (R2 = 0.41) included fiber, energy density, fat, age, adherence, baseline weight, race, and changes from baseline in carbohydrate, fiber, PUFA, and MUFA intake, but the most influential predictor was fiber intake (⁠β̂  = −0.37; P < 0.0001). In addition, fiber was strongly associated with adherence to the macronutrient prescriptions (P < 0.0001). Interactions between race and adherence, age, baseline weight, carbohydrate, energy density, and MUFAs were also retained in the final model.

Conclusion

Dietary fiber intake, independently of macronutrient and caloric intake, promotes weight loss and dietary adherence in adults with overweight or obesity consuming a calorie-restricted diet.

Source: Fiber Intake Predicts Weight Loss and Dietary Adherence in Adults Consuming Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) Study | The Journal of Nutrition | Oxford Academic

Steve Parker, M.D.

Steve Parker MD, Advanced Mediterranean Diet

Click the pic to purchase at Amazon.com. E-book versions also available at Smashwords. com.

Mangan on Rapid Weight Loss

P.D. Mangan posted a good article on the dangers of rapid weight loss. I agree with him that a max of 1–2 pounds a week is a reasonable weight-loss goal, and that a bit more than that is OK in the first week but highly inadvisable for the long run. Most folks do well if they settle into one pound a week.

From P.D.:

Slower Metabolism

A slower metabolism is another side effect of losing weight too quickly; since your body’s metabolism is essentially determining how much fuel you are needing to burn every day based on your activities and food intake, dropping calories out of your diet can considerably lower your metabolism. While this might not seem like a big deal, it is! A lower metabolism essentially causes your body to burn fewer calories each day than it typically would, and some research even shows up to a 23% decrease in calories that are burned each day. This doesn’t always go away when you stop losing weight quickly, either, your metabolism might take a while to get back on track and burning appropriately, which could affect your health and weight for a long time.

Muscle Loss

Lastly, your body could end up losing muscle as part of your quick weight loss routine. Granted, eliminating calories from your diet will have you lose weight, yes, but aside from a lot of that weight being water, some of it can also be muscle. A recent study done with people on a 500 calorie diet versus a 1250 calorie diet showed significant results; by the end of the trial, the participants on the 500 calorie diet lost six times more muscle than those on the 1250 calorie diet – an astounding loss in muscle in just a five-week span of time.

Source: Risks of Losing Weight Too Quickly – Rogue Health and Fitness

Steve Parker, M.D.

Steve Parker MD, Advanced Mediterranean Diet

Click the pic to purchase at Amazon.com

 

Problematic Liver Fat? Low-Carb Mediterranean Diet Works Better Than Low-Fat Diet

From an article at International Business Times:

Reducing hepatic [liver] fat or fat around the liver by 30%, along with moderate weight loss is an important part in reducing obesity-related health risks from a long-term perspective, the researchers of the study said. In addition to moderate weight loss, visceral fat or fat stored within the abdominal cavity was reduced by 25% and fat around the heart decreased by 11%. Fat in and around the muscle and pancreas was also reduced by 1 to 2%.

“Reduction in liver fat is a better predictor of long-term health than reduction of visceral fat, which was previously believed to be the main predictor,” Professor Shai explained in a press release. “The findings are a significant contributor to the emerging understanding that for many obese individuals, excess liver fat is not merely a sign of health risks associated with obesity, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but is likely also a cause.”

Source: Scientists Reveal Most Effective Diet For Weight Loss, And It’s Not Keto

Click for details of the study.

Steve Parker, M.D.

Steve Parker MD, Advanced Mediterranean Diet

Click the pic to purchase at Amazon.com