…according to an article at MedPageToday.
“One more rep then I’m outa here!”
The two experimental groups had about 60 participants each, so it was a relatively small study. (In general, the larger the study, the more reliable the findings.) Most participants were white women; mean age was 69. The experimental intervention ran for five months. An excerpt:
In one trial, the participants were randomized to a structured resistance training program in which three sets of 10 repetitions of eight upper and lower body exercises were done 3 days each week at 70% of one repetition maximum for 5 weeks, with or without calorie restriction of 600 calories per day.
In the second study, participants were randomized to an aerobic program which was conducted for 30 minutes at 65% to 70% heart rate reserve 4 days per week, with or without calorie restriction of 600 calories per day.
The beneficial bone effect was seen at the hip but not the lumbar spine.
Thin old bones—i.e., osteoporotic ones—are prone to fractures. Maintaining or improving bone mineral density probably prevents age-related fractures. In a five-month small study like this, I wouldn’t expect the researchers to find any fracture rate reduction; that takes years.
Most elders starting a weight-training program should work with a personal trainer.
Steve Parker, M.D.
Posted in Exercise, Osteoporosis, Overweight & Obesity
Tagged aerobic exercise, BMI, bone mineral density, elderly, exercise, resistance training, seniors, weight loss, weight training
Potential answers are in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012). I quote:
For hypertension, coronary heart disease, and stroke, there is convincing evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit reduces the risk of disease. There is probable evidence that the risk of cancer in general is inversely associated with the consumption of vegetables and fruit. In addition, there is possible evidence that an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit may prevent body weight gain. As overweight is the most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, an increased consumption of vegetables and fruit therefore might indirectly reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Independent of overweight, there is probable evidence that there is no influence of increased consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is possible evidence that increasing the consumption of vegetables and fruit lowers the risk of certain eye diseases, dementia and the risk of osteoporosis. Likewise, current data on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis indicate that an increase in vegetable and fruit consumption may contribute to the prevention of these diseases. For inflammatory bowel disease, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, there was insufficient evidence regarding an association with the consumption of vegetables and fruit.
It bothers me that vegetables and fruits are lumped together: they’re not the same.
All of my diets—Advanced Mediterranean, Low-Carb Mediterranean, and Ketogenic Mediterranean—provide plenty of fruits and vegetables.
A new European study suggests that calcium supplements almost double the risk of having a heart attack, at least in Germans. You can read the full report in the current issue of Heart.
The medical literature on this issue is a confusing mess. In other words, lots of conflicting results.
Huge numbers of women in the U.S. are taking calcium supplements either to treat or prevent osteoporosis and the associated broken bones (e.g., hips, wrists, spine).
What I’d like to know, and what nobody knows, is what is the effect of calcium supplementation on average longevity and quality of life. Maybe I’d accept a higher risk of heart attack if calcium supplementation prolonged lifespan by two years.
In the interest of brevity, I’ll just say that the best way to get your calcium is probably through food rather than supplements.
Shereen Jegtvig has an article at About.com listing foods rich in calcium.
Exercise can also help keep your bones strong and break-resistant.
Steve Parker, M.D.
PS: If your doctor has you on a calcium supplement, you’d best get his blessing before you stop it.