High Glycemic Load and High Glycemic Index Eating Increase Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

This isn’t news to many of us. Click if you want to see some evidence at AJCN. Confused about glycemic index and load? Click here.

Will I Eat Less If I Eat Slower?

In general, you would eat fewer calories compared to eating faster. It doesn’t affect your degree of hunger at the end of the meal or within the few hours thereafter. AJCN has the details.

Why the authors of the study didn’t report effects on body weight are a mystery to me. Probably trying to get another published article out of their work.

If calories matter in weight loss efforts, and I think they do, you may improve your weight loss success by eating slower.

PS: I only read the abstract.

Will Eating More Vegetables and Fruits Help With Weight Management?

Sorry, but NO, according to AJCN. But they may have other benefits.

Magnesium Oxide Supplement Boosted Performance in Exercising Elderly Women

AJCN has the details. I’d like to see replication of these study results by other researchers. If you’re tempted to start a magnesium supplement, be aware the you could get toxic blood levels of the mineral if you have kidney impairment; check with your doctor.

Exercise Once Again Linked to Avoidance of Dementia

The NYT’s Well blog has the details. The brain’s hippocampus is a critical center for memory. Alzheimers disease is associated with a gene called apo-E4. Carriers of that gene who exercise regularly have less shrinkage of the hippocampus than non-exercisers. 

To PROVE that regular exercise prevents dementia-related shrinkage of the hippocampus, you’d have to force some folks to exercise and stop others who wanted to exercise. A couple years later, scan their brains and compare the two groups. That study may never be done. 

The Mediterranean diet also seems to prevent or forestall dementia.

QOTD: J. Stanton on Exercise and Weight Loss

Exercise is not important because it burns calories! Exercise without calorie restriction is a remarkably ineffective weight loss intervention, because it usually makes us hungry enough to replace the calories we burn. Exercise is important because it restores your ability to oxidize fat—both when fasting and after meals. And we can tie this in with mitochondrial dysfunction by noting that exercise is proven to increase mitochondrial volume.

J. Stanton

Riddle Me This: What’s Pure, White, and Deadly?

The answer is sugar, according to John Yudkin and Robert Lustig, among others. The Age has the details. A quote:

[Robert] Lustig is one of a growing number of scientists who don’t just believe sugar makes you fat and rots teeth. They’re convinced it’s the cause of several chronic and very common illnesses, including heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer’s and diabetes. It’s also addictive, since it interferes with our appetites and creates an irresistible urge to eat.

This year, Lustig’s message has gone mainstream; many of the New Year diet books focused not on fat or carbohydrates, but on cutting out sugar and the everyday foods (soups, fruit juices, bread) that contain high levels of sucrose. The anti-sugar camp is not celebrating yet, however. They know what happened to Yudkin and what a ruthless and unscrupulous adversary the sugar industry proved to be.

In 1822, we in the U.S. ate 6.2 pounds of sugar per person per year. By 1999, we were up to 108 pounds.

An occasional teaspoon of sugar probably won't hurt you

An occasional teaspoon of sugar probably won’t hurt you, even if you have diabetes

The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that added sugars provide 17% of the total calories in the average American diet.  A typical carbonated soda contain the equivalent of 10 tsp (50 ml) of sugar.  The average U.S. adult eats 30 tsp  (150 ml) daily of added sweeteners and sugars.

On the other hand, Fanatic Cook Bix found a study linking higher sugar consumption with lower body weight, which you might think would protect against type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and some cancers.

Read the rest at The Age. It’s mostly about John Yudkin.

Steve Parker, M.D.

h/t Jamie Scott